Approach for characterizing baffle edge diffraction with the DED model.


Comparison of flat and variable-curvature arrays. SPL distribution of the variable-curvature array is adapted to suit the audience geometry.


WST Criteria 1 and 2 illustrated.


Comparison between sound field radiated by a punctual, a circular and a slot source.

About Us | R&D Fields

Fundamental Acoustics

  • WST® criteria for design and use of line source (AES Journal in 1992, 2001,2003)
  • DED (Distributed Edge Dipole) model for cabinet diffraction effects
  • Progressive vent for increased SPL, laminar airflow and reduced turbulence noise
  • K-LOUVER® technology for variable directivity of line source
  • PANFLEX™ horizontal steering technology

Design and engineering

  • New material analysis and sourcing
  • Vibrations analysis to optimize enclosure design
  • 3D computer-assisted design and modeling
  • Mechanical testing and rigging certification


  • Green power supplies with PFC
  • Class D amplified controllers
  • Proprietary DSP boards
  • Multi-channel devices

Signal processing

  • Design and proprietary algorithms
  • Array morphing contour EQ tool
  • L-DRIVE dual protection (thermal, over-excursion)
  • FIR filters
  • Air absorption compensation EQ

Application software

  • 3D acoustic and mechanical modeling
  • Remote control and monitoring


The Distributed Edge Dipole (DED) Model for Cabinet Diffraction Effects

AES Journal, Vol. 52, n°10 - 2004 October


A simple model is proposed to account for the effects of cabinet edge diffraction on the radiated sound field for direct-radiating loudspeaker components when mounted in an enclosure. The proposed approach is termed the Distributed Edge Dipole (DED) model since it is developed based on the Kirchoff Approximation (KA) using distributed dipoles with their axes perpendicular to the baffle edge as the elementary diffractive sources.

The DED model is first tested against measurements for a thin circular baffle and is then applied to a real world loudspeaker that has a thick, rectangular baffle. The forward sound pressure level and the entire angular domain are investigated and predictions of the DED model show good agreement with experimental measurements.

Wavefront Sculpture Technology, October 2003

AES Journal, Vol. 51, n°10


The Fresnel approach in optics is introduced to the field of acoustics. Fresnel analysis provides an effective, intuitive way of understanding complex interference phenomena and allows for the definition of criteria required to couple discrete sound sources effectively and to achieve coverage of a given audience geometry in sound-reinforcement applications. The derived criteria from the basis of what is termed Wavefront Sculpture Technology.

Wavefront Sculpture Technology

AES Convention Paper #5488

Article presented at the 111th AES Convention, New York 2001


We introduce Fresnel’s ideas in optics to the field of acoustics. Fresnel analysis provides an effective, intuitive approach to the understanding of complex interference phenomena and thus opens the road to establishing the criteria for the effective coupling of sound sources and for the coverage of a given audience geometry in sound reinforcement applications.

The derived criteria form the basis of what is termed Wavefront Sculpture Technology.

Sound Field Radiated By Arrayed Multiple Sound Sources

AES Convention Paper #3269

Article presented at the 92nd AES Convention, Vienna 1992


How to know whether it is possible or not to predict the behaviour of an array when the behaviour of each element is known?

Our purpose is to describe the sound field produced by arrays in such a way that criteria for “arraybility” can be defined.